INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WOOLLY APPLE APHID IN WASHINGTON STATE by Lessando Moreira Gontijo, Ph.D. Washington State University December 2011 Chair: Elizabeth H. Beers Abstract Woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann is a secondary pest of apples whose outbreaks have occurred more often since about 2000 Biological control The parasitoid Aphelinus mali is generally given the most credit for biological control of woolly apple aphid Wearing CH, Attfield BA, Colhoun K (2010) Biological control of woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), during transition to integrated fruit production for pipfruit in Central Otago, New Zealand. N Z J Crop Hortic Sci 38:255-273
As Iowa State University notes in one of its Iowa Insect Information Notes, Woolly aphids are an important resource for natural biological controls such as lacewings, lady beetles, hover flies, and parasitic wasps. Tolerance of aphid presence is one way to encourage beneficial insects. They go on to say Flying adults are a wonderment . Killing them is one of the easiest ways to get rid of woolly aphids. Here are a few natural and easy ways to kill any woolly aphids you have in your garden Control woolly aphids naturally by introducing predators that feed on aphids, as well as their larvae and nymphs. Parasitic wasps such as Aphelinus mali, ladybugs, hoverflies, and lacewings can help keep woolly aphid numbers to a minimum. Scientific research suggests that parasitic wasps are an effective biological control for woolly aphids
The three main methods of control for Woolly aphids are organic sprays, systemic chemical sprays and natural predators Woolly aphids appear in early autumn the woolly coating covers the insects and the white coating is usually the first sign of infection Therefore, it is important to have the aphid properly identified before making a purchase in online sources. A biological control that can be applied similar to a traditional is insecticide is any product containing Beauvaria bassiana. This entomopathogenic fungus is usually applied as a foliar spray and is parasitic to many soft body insects Woolly Aphid Control Since severe woolly aphid attacks rarely occur, there is little need for woolly aphid pesticide for control. Generally, their numbers are kept low with natural predators like lacewings, ladybugs, hoverflies, and parasitic wasps Progress10/01/04 to 09/30/05OutputsWe have made significant progress toward understanding the role of predators, and predatory hover flies in particular, on the biological control of woolly apple aphid in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States
Biological Control Natural enemies are organisms that work to reduce the numbers of another organism through predation, parasitism and other means. The most important tools for aphid management are natural enemies that prey on aphids, such as lady beetles, lacewings, syrphid flies, soldier beetles and small parasitic wasps Biological Control Aphelinus mali is a parasite that can completely control aerial colonies. In the absence of this parasite there can be large increases of aerial colonies and woolly aphids may be found in the calyx of the apple. Outbreaks of woolly apple aphid are most common following the use of pyrethroids, which destroys its natural enemies Cultural practices that encourage these predators will enhance biological control of woolly apple aphid. References Consulted. Asante, S. K., and W. Danthanaryana. 1992. Development of Aphelinus mali, an endoparasitoid of woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum, at different temperatures. Entom. Exp. Appl. 65: 31-37 Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), has become a pest of increasing importance in Washington apple orchards in the past decade. The increase in aphid outbreaks appears to be associated with changes in pesticide programs and disruption of biological control Counts of 5-15 per shelter are associated with biological control of woolly apple aphid in apples (Nicholas et al. 2005, Quarrell et al. 2017, Orpet et al. 2019). However, shelter counts can be affected by the abundance of alternative hiding areas.
Woolly Apple Aphid Biological Control Aphid mummies Aphelinus mali parasitoid wasp of WAA Aphid Predators: ladybeetles lacewings syrphid flies Alyssum planted to attract Syrphid flies to nectar & pollen. Management of Woolly Apple Aphid •Petal Fall •Ultor •1 or 2 applications (14 d) •Post-Bloom when WAA firs
The release of Aphelinus mali HALD. from artificial rearing for the control of Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum HAUSM.) was tested in field trials. The release of adults proved to be more suitable than the release of cards with parasitized mummies as practised in the first trial. Setting free adult A. mali at the beginning of June reduced the aphid population, though its efficiency was. The release of Aphelinus mali Hald. from artificial rearing for the control of Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.) was tested in field trials. The release of adults proved to be more suitable than the release of cards with parasitized mummies as practised in the first trial. Setting free adult A. mali at the beginning of June reduced the aphid population, though its efficiency was.
Sugar cane Woolly Aphid (SWA), Ceratovacuna lanigera (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important pest of sugarcane in Asia. In India, an epidemic of this pest was detected in Maharashtra State during 2002-03 and again in 2003-04. Losses of 39 tonnes cane/ha and 3.43 units in sugar recovery were observed. The predators, Dipha aphidivora (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Micromus igorotus (Neuroptera:.. 1. Bull Entomol Res. 1965 Dec;56(2):269-74. Some aspects of insecticidal and biological control of the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hsm.) in Rhodesia This is the first study to show that the biological control of woolly aphid can be achieved in a commercially viable IPM program. Download to read the full article text References. Anon., 1969. Co-Operative Research Programme on Orchard Pest Management. Research Summer 10 (unpublished report held by CSIRO Canberra)
Biological control has also been used successfully for example in Tanzania, native predators such as the Coccinellids sp., Chaelemens sp., Chilocorus sp. and Rodolia sp. have been found keeping down the aphid population in some pine plantations in the Sao Hill, West Kilimanjaro and Meru Forest projects (Kisaka, 1990) Biological control needs to be used as an alternative to insecticides for control of the spirea aphid in apple orchards. Enhancing natural enemies for management of pests in the apple orchards offers opportunities for biological control and it may reduce, or even eliminate, pesticide use and associated negative side effects ( Desneux et al. Sachan JN, Gangwar SK, 1987. Reaction of different varieties of apple to woolly aphid incidence. Indian Journal of Entomology, 49(4):559-561. Shaw PW, Walker JTS, O'Callaghan M, 1996. Biological control of woolly apple aphid by Aphelinus mali in an integrated fruit production programme in Nelson Sugarcane white woolly aphid (Seratovacunalanigera): This pest of sugarcane was also successfully managed by bio agents viz. Diphaaphidivora, Chrysoperla spp., Coccinellid beetles, Syrphid flies and some spiders in the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka, where its outbreak during 2003-04 had caused considerable economic damage to the farmers The recommended control method of pine woolly aphid is biological control. Bennett and Ostmark (1972) have suggested that the application of biological control is the only way to manage this pest. This was also supported by Odera (1971) who unsuccessfully used chemicals to eradicate the pest
Biological Control of insect-pest in sugarcane Chemical control of Sugarcane Woolly Aphid, Ceratovacuna lanigera Integrated pest management : Sugarcane ratoon cro To Get Rid of Woolly Aphids:. Woolly aphids can be difficult to get rid of but spraying with PLANThealth Spectrum and/or Organic Insect Control followed by Organic Super Spraying Oil is most effective, killing aphids through suffocation. However, do not spray in the middle of the day or in strong sunlight or high temperature as this can cause burning of the plant
Woolly Apple Aphid Biological Control Aphid mummies Aphelinusmali parasitoid wasp of WAA Aphid Predators: ladybeetles lacewings syrphid flies Alyssum planted to attract syrphid flies to nectar & pollen Management of Woolly Apple Aphid Petal Fall Ultor/Movento (spirotetramat) 1 or 2 applications (14-21 d) Post-Bloom when WAA first observe The large woolly aphid colony can impede plant growth, especially the new ones. Moreover, the pest treatment with predatory insects keeps their leaves from yellowing and becoming distorted. This biological pest control method successfully prevents plant destruction. Be sure you do it at the right time
BIOCOMES biological control agent. Several aphid species (like woolly apple aphids or black cherry aphid) are extremely hard to control with the currently available (chemical) control compounds and the requirements concerning maximum residue limits (often even extra-legal demands by leading retailers) Systemic insecticides are also available for aphid management, primarily for woody ornamentals. These materials, including imidacloprid, are very effective and are especially useful for serious infestations of aphids such as the woolly hackberry aphid, which is often not effectively controlled by biological control or less toxic insecticides Woolly Apple Aphid Management. The woolly apple aphid (WAA), Erisoma lanigerum has historically been considered an occasional apple pest in Ontario, but is now seen more frequently in orchards. Besides apples, other hosts include pear, hawthorn, mountain ash and elm. There can be two colonies of WAA: aerial and underground (on roots) Complete biological control of woolly whitefly was attained in 1974 (Greathead 1976). Similar results were obtained after C. noacki was introduced to France in 1971, Reunion in 1976, Portugal in 1978, Sicily in 1983 and Hawaii in 1981 and Italy in 1982, the latter having both C. noacki and A. spinferus present Simulations revealed the woolly aphid/natural enemy ratios necessary for control. Biology & Ecology. Radwan & La-Vei (1983) looked at the acceptability of different aphid species as prey for the coccinellid Exochomus quadripustulatus. Females pine ladybirds oviposited when fed on Dysaphis plantaginea and Acyrthosiphon pisum
woolly aphid in quarantine and to provide researchers the necessary information so that releases of identified parasitoids, or predators, may eventually be made. The establishment of a successful biological control agent will provide long-term sustainable control of the aphid for municipalities, agencies, and landscap Other methods involve killing the aphids with physical, biological, or chemical means. No matter what route you choose, rest assured that all 8 of these aphid control options are organic! Before we dive into the ways to get rid of aphids in the garden, let's briefly familiarize ourselves with these pesky little wankers Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) is an effective natural enemy of woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Previous studies have found that, with WAA from Shandong Province (Qingdao) as the host, there are significant differences in various biological characteristics between a Shandong clade and Liaoning clade of A. mali
spatial patterns of woolly apple aphid predator activity, and (3) intraguild predation and other interactions be-tween predators. Overall, our study provides new evi-dence of behavioral differences among key predators that contribute towoollyapple aphid biological control. Methods Study Site Our study was conducted at a 12-tree plot o The hoverflies, Heringia calcarata and Eupeodes americana, have also been used as effective biological control organisms. Areopraon lepelleyi is another species of wasp which is a parasitoid of the woolly apple aphid. In addition, entomopathogenic nematodes have been used to control root-dwelling populations of E. lanigerum. Host plant The Woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) is one of the main pests of apple. Learn more about the life cycle, damage symptoms and the biological pest control of Eriosoma lanigerum Control. The problem can be largely avoided by purchasing trees grown on woolly aphid resistant stocks - ask your supplier when choosing trees. Some clonal stocks including M9 and M26 are quite prone to attack and may host large overwintering colonies, so they are best avoided for the home or organic gardener to comprise the main woolly apple aphid natural enemy taxa in Washington State (Gontijo et al., 2012), except for ground beetles. Ground beetles have not been speciﬁcally studied as a woolly apple aphid predator in the ﬁeld, but can consume woolly apple aphids in the laboratory (Orpet, personal observations). Interviewees were also aske
Management-biological control. Lacewings, lady beetles and syrphid fly larvae are predators, as well as the parasitic wasp Aphelinus mali. The predators will consume all but the waxy secretion left by the aphids. Management-cultural control. This aphid is considered a minor pest in the PNW. If colonies are found on trees, they can be physically. gave incidental control of woolly aphid, to a more sustainable approach of managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimises economic, health, and environmental risks. Woolly aphid is easily recognisable as the aphid itself is brown to greyis The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), a native of Asia, is a 1/32 inch long reddish purple insect that lives within its own protective coating. White, woolly masses that shelter these sap-feeding insects are at the bases of hemlock needles along infested branches. The presence of these white sacs, which resemble tiny cotton balls, indicate that a. This parasitic wasp provides very effective biological control of the woolly apple aphid in the absence of harmful pesticides. Damage. Identification. Egg - inserted into body of aphid, 0.007 - 0.21 mm. Larva - elongated, shield shaped, develops inside host. Adult - shiny black wasp, short antennae, inconspicuous in orchard, jumps rather than.
Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae, HWA) is an aphid-like invasive pest of hemlock trees in eastern North America.The HWA is native to all hemlock species in western North America and Asia, and hemlock trees in these regions are unaffected by HWA infestations. 1 However, hemlocks in the eastern United States have not adapted to this pest, and HWA has caused widespread decline and mortality. contribute to the biological control of woolly apple aphid. Aphelinus mali, a small parasitic wasp, lays its eggs directly into the body of the aphid. The larva fully develops and pupates inside of the aphid's body and the adult parasite emerges from the aphid by cutting a circular exit.
Biological Control: Home Resources Biological Control History Even a woolly apple aphid, heavily laden with waxes, First, the aphid body swells, then the underside of the aphid body becomes gel like, and that serves to glue the aphid down onto the plant surface. It is now secured for the remainder of the wasp's development Outbreaks of woolly aphids have been experienced in Central Texas in mid to late summer, 2010 and 2012. According to Dr. Mike Merchant , Urban Entomologist and Extension Specialist, pointed out (Aug. 2012): Control is probably not necessary unless the honeydew is becoming unacceptable, in which case they might try dinotefuran (Greenlight Safari.
SOME SUCCESS STORIES IN CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN INDIA 6 Biological Control of Woolly Aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Aphididae).. 24 Biological Control of Spiralling Whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Aleyrodidae).. 25 Biological Control of Subabul Psyllid, Heteropsylla. Figure 8: Leafcurl ash aphids, a type of woolly aphid. These aphids curl the leaves of green ash. Figure 9: Aphid on cottonwood giving live birth to a daughter aphid. Figure 10: Winged and wingless forms of the green peach aphid. Figure 11. Eggs of the Norway maple aphid tucked around the base of buds Woolly apple aphid. Parasitic wasps and flies help control San Jose scale and woolly apple aphid. Woolly apple aphid is not an invasive insect. It is one of America's unique contributions to the worldwide apple pest community, Biddinger said. This made in the USA label gives something of an advantage when it comes to biological. Aphid Natural Enemies and Biological Control. Ron Patterson, Carbon Co. Extension, and Ricardo Ramirez, Extension Entomology Specialist. What You Should Know •Aphids are prey to many predatory insects, spiders, and parasitoids. •Healthy predatory populations keep aphid v SUMMARY Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), or woolly apple aphid (WAA), is a serious pest of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkhausen), attacking both the root system and the arboreal parts of the tree. Current management of WAA in apple orchards relies on the use of both biological
1. Cultural control. Successfully managing woolly aphid populations begins with good cultural control beginning with the physical destruction of colonies in the late spring when they will be visible on the trunk and before they emerge to spread to young growth. Such an approach offers value but is likely to be practical only on a limited scale. 2 capable of providing effective biological control of woolly aphid. Apples are subjected to a wide range of insect and mite pests and diseases. Pesticides continue to play an important role in orchard management, including IPM programs. Chemicals toxic to F. auricularia have the potential to disrupt effective biological control of woolly aphid Biological control —A viable solution to the woolly aphid problem Conservation Since natural enemies were found to control the woolly aphid effectively, farmers were advised not to apply chemical insecticides. In areas where chemical pesticides were not applied, the natural enemies multiplied rapidly and devoured the woolly aphid Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) is an effective natural enemy used in China to control woolly apple aphid. Previous studies have found that populations of A. mali in China fall into two distinct genetic clades. We found that one of these, the Shandong clade, is more effective as a biological control agent than the Liaoning clade In about mid-summer a parasitic wasp, Aphelinus mali, parasitises the aphids, providing a certain amount of biological control. The woolly apple aphid colonies are reduced by the onset of the winter rains, but a small number do survive throughout the winter
Biological Control of Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum HAUSM.) with Aphelinus mali HALD. By K. Hetebrügge, N. Fieger-Metag, J. Kienzle, H. Bathon, C.P.W. Zebitz and J. Zimmer. Download PDF (228 KB) Abstract. The release of Aphelinus mali HALD. from artificial rearing for the control of Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma\ud lanigerum HAUSM. From chemicals to biological control. Woolly aphid can be controlled with chemical pesticides but pesticides are not widely used on sugarcane, and also Indian researchers have been concerned that pesticide use would disrupt the natural control of another major sugarcane pest, the leafhopper Pyrilla perpusilla. Despite these concerns, the. The hemlock woolly adelgid is a tiny, aphid-like insect that is ravaging hemlocks from Maine to Georgia. The woolly adelgid is considered a serious threat to species of eastern hemlocks and to the overall health of forest and river ecosystems. Read on to learn more about the woolly adelgid, and find out how to tell if the hemlocks in your yard are infested Woolly apple aphid infestations on pyracantha bushes around campus. These produce cottony fluff along the branches. When you brush away the fluff (really it is wax the aphids produce) you will see hundreds of pink or grey aphids crawling around. Woolly apple aphids have been out for a month or so now but are becoming. AB STRACT Growing temperate fruits in the highlands of Ethiopia will help to balance the diet of farmers. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of naturally occurring products in controlling the wooly apple aphid in appl
Biological Bullies. Several insects prey on aphids. To take advantage of this biological control, release commercially available convergent lady beetles (Hippodamia convergens) on your outdoor bonsai The researchers recently published their study in the journal Biological Control. They found that plantings of sweet alyssum, a popular annual with small, white, sweet-smelling flowers, attracted a host of spiders and predator bugs that, in turn, preyed on woolly apple aphids, a pest that growers often control with chemical sprays Biological control is often underutilized, however, in Learn more about Local and landscape-scale conservation of beneficial predators in Columbia Basin Potato Crops Conservation Biology of Syrphids, Predators of Woolly Aphid in Central Washington biological control (using one organism to control another by predation, parasitism, or competition), cultural practices (specialized pruning, orchard sanitation, planting disease- The best control for woolly apple aphid is to select rootstocks with genetic resistance
The factors affecting trap capture of adult Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were studied in 2010-2011 in eastern Washington apple (Malus spp.) orchards infested with its host woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The initial study of white sticky cards indicated that traps stapled to the trunk in a vertical orientation had the highest. HEMLOCK WOOLLY ADELGID Adelges tsugae (Annand) On this page: Description; Life Cycle; Spread; Quarantine; Monitoring; Control; pdf version. The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is a small aphid-like insect that feeds on hemlock (Tsuga spp.).This insect was introduced from Japan to Virginia in the early 1950's and has since spread north to Maine and south to Georgia
Chemical control: Horticultural oil and soap sprays can assist natural enemies when aphid populations are high enough to justify control efforts. Apply imidacloprid as a soil treatment by early summer to control heavy infesta-tions of this pest. Biological control: There are numerous natural enemies of this aphid. Ants, yellow jackets. Biological Control of Woolly Apple Aphid; Managing Arthropod Pests in Virginia Apple Orchards; Extension and Outreach. The center's Extension and outreach program applies research-based information and knowledge to commercial tree fruit crop growers and the public and addresses needs of the tree fruit crop industry in Virginia. Emphasis is. When azinphos-methyl was withdrawn, natural enemies migrated in and provided control of woolly aphid within one season. This is the first study to show that the biological control of woolly aphid can be achieved in a commercially viable IPM progra In the May 2019 edition of the journal Biological Control, Robert Orpet, Orpet came to the earwig through his research into the woolly apple aphid, a costly pest of Washington's $2.4 billion apple industry. A colony of woolly aphids infests an apple tree Its feeding capacity and ability to survive winter field conditions in Virginia indicate its potential as a biological control agent of hemlock woolly adelgid. Publications. Zilahi-Balogh, G.M.G., S. M. Salom, and L. T. Kok. 2003. Development and reproductive biology of Laricobius nigrinus, a potential biological control agent of Adelges tsugae This biological control for dealing with vine weevil grubs (that munch on roots) uses microscopic pathogenic nematodes that are applied in a soil drench. Woolly aphid Woolly aphids that commonly infest trees in the apple family, as well as pyracantha and cotoneaster, are the very devil to defeat, says garden expert Helen Yemm..