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Navicular bone fracture management

Management of tarsal navicular stress fractures

  1. Non-weightbearing conservative management should be considered the standard of care for tarsal navicular stress fractures. The authors could find no advantage for surgical treatment compared with NWB immobilization. However, there is a statistical trend favoring NWB over surgery. Rest or immobilizat
  2. If the navicular is stable, then treatment may continue as outlined for uncomplicated navicular fractures. If the navicular is unstable, then internal fixation is required. A complete fracture with..
  3. e if there is a stress reaction or fracture, and if fractured, to what degree. When managing a navicular stress fracture,..
  4. Tarsal Navicular Fractures are rare fractures of the midfoot that may occur due to trauma or due to repetitive microstress. Diagnosis can be made with plain radiographs of the foot. Treatment is generally nonoperative with cast immobilization and non weight-bearing for the majority of fractures
  5. Navicular Fracture - Emergency Management. TOPIC. ABOUT. Follow Share. Follow. Share. General Information. General Information General Information. Description. Fracture of the navicular tarsal bone of the foot; Anatomy. The navicular is a tarsal bone that is part of 2 structures essential for normal gait . Medial longitudinal arch ; Transverse.

Navicular Fracture Treatment & Management: Acute Phase

  1. A scaphoid (navicular) fracture is a break in one of the small bones of the wrist. This type of fracture occurs most often after a fall onto an outstretched hand. Symptoms of a scaphoid fracture typically include pain and tenderness in the area just below the base of the thumb. These symptoms may worsen when you try to pinch or grasp something
  2. g and shoeing to immobilize the hoof
  3. open fracture. Other Navicular fractures can simply be reviewed in the fracture clinic. 9. What is the usual ED management for this injury, and what follow-up is required? Immobilise fractures in a below-knee splint or cast ; Advise the child and parent to avoid bearing weight until orthopaedic review in approximately one wee
  4. The navicular bone is one of the largest bones in the foot. Like other bones, a navicular fracture can occur following a traumatic accident. As one of the biggest bones in the middle of the foot, the navicular plays a vital role in the support and balance of the lower body
  5. Management Navicular stress fractures typically progress along a continuum of three stages. The first is a stress reaction, typified by a short duration of pain (less than two weeks), which may decrease with rest. However, patients will have a tender 'N' spot, and while the CT scan is normal, an MRI will show bone edema
  6. Navicular fracture dislocations with associated injuries are preferably managed in a progressive pattern of reducing the navicular fracture first, then reducing the cuneiform fractures, followed by the medial column, and finally the cuboid fractures
  7. The management of traumatic navicular fractures can also be surgical or nonsurgical. Small avulsion fractures, tuberosity fractures, and nondisplaced body fractures can be managed nonoperatively, with the use of a weight-bearing short leg cast and ultimately a walking boot 47)

Panel discusses management of navicular stress fracture

  1. Navicular fracture; Cuboid fracture; Cuneiform fracture; Forefoot. Fifth metatarsal fracture; Non-fifth metatarsal fracture; Toe fracture; Evaluation. Imaging: (weight-bearing AP, lateral, oblique) CT sometimes necessary; Management General Fracture Management. Acute pain management; Open fractures require immediate IV antibiotics and urgent.
  2. A navicular body fracture, either isolated or with additional fractures, dislocations, and/or fracture-dislocations of the foot [combination injuries (CIs)], is an uncommon injury and results from a high-energy crush or dislocation. Classically, Main and Jowett 1 first described the injury
  3. Common causes of navicular bone pain are fracture and arthritis Important but less appreciated causes include ligament injury, irritation of low back nerves, and Accessory Navicular Bone. PRP and stem cells are effective, nonsurgical, natural treatment options for Navicular Bone pain
  4. Navicular bone fractures are usually a result of trauma or excessive concussion to the foot, but the cause is not always known. It is much less common than distal phalanx fracture and is more commonly seen in the forelimb. Although pain is variable, hoof testers usually induce a painful response over the frog

Tarsal Navicular Fractures - Foot & Ankle - Orthobullet

Stress fractures of the tarsal navicular bone are being recognized with increasing frequency in physically active persons. Diagnosis is commonly delayed, and outcome often suffers because. The OTA classification uses the designation 74-_ _ ._ for navicular fractures, where 74 indicates the specific region (the navicular in this case). The first blank is used to define joint involvement, the second and third define pattern and position of the fracture. A: extra-articular. Pattern: 1. avulsion. 2. split. 3. split/depression. Position

The Sangeorzan classification is used to assess the severity of isolated navicular fractures and to determine management: type I: the fracture line is in the coronal plane and there is no angulation of the forefoot. type II: the fracture line is dorsal-lateral to plantar-medial and the forefoot is medially displaced With appropriate physiotherapy management, most patients with a stress fracture of the navicular can make a full recovery (return to sport or full activities) in a period of 3 - 9 months. In more severe cases, recovery may take 1 year, or longer, depending on the intervention required and a range of other factors Navicular stress fracture treatment. Treatment of a navicular stress fracture may depend on severity. If the injury is classed as a stress reaction where the outer part of the bone has not fractured then weight bearing rest in a walking splint may be recommended until symptoms have gone followed by a gradual return to full fitness. If a stress. An accessory navicular is an extra bone that is on the inner center arch of the foot. Up to 2.5 percent of individuals are born with the accessory navicular. Throughout early childhood, this condition is not noticed. However, in adolescence, when the accessory navicular begins to calcify, the bump on the inner aspect of the arch becomes noticed

Navicular Fracture - Emergency Management - DynaMe

Scaphoid Fracture of the Wrist - OrthoInfo - AAO

Navicular Bone. The tarsal navicular bone is injured only occasionally in children, and the fracture is rarely displaced. Nine navicular fractures were seen in 175 fractures reviewed from the Cincinnati Children's Hospital. 22. Because of the variability in ossification, a fracture may be confused with Köhler disease A systematic review of the published literature was conducted utilizing MEDLINE through Ovid, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and EBSCOhost. Reports of studies that provided the type of tarsal navicular stress fracture (ie, complete or incomplete), type of treatment, result of that treatment, and the time required to return to full activity were selected for analysis A navicular fracture is a break in the navicular bone on the top of the midfoot Fracture near the thumb. Scaphoid fractures that are closer to the thumb (distal pole) usually heal in a matter of weeks with proper protection and restricted activity. This part of the scaphoid bone has a good blood supply, which is necessary for healing. For this type of fracture, your doctor may place your forearm and hand in a cast or a splint

The navicular bone is one of the 26 bones in the human foot. It's important for connecting the ankle to the lower bones in our feet and helps form the arch that enables us to walk. It is prone to stress fractures, especially by athletes while kicking, sprinting, twisting, or falling The tarsal navicular bone also has certain areas with decreased blood flow, making it a risk for injury and poor healing. If there is increased stress or inadequate recovery, a fracture can develop. A stress fracture ranges from bone swelling to a full break that develops from repeated pressure on the bone rather than one large force The deep digital flexor tendon ties into the coffin bone and runs over the lower surface of the navicular bone in the rear part of the hoof before turning to go up the horse's leg. The tendon is under tension as the horse moves, and any factor that increases this stress or impedes smooth action can lead to inflammation and pain in the heel area

Management Fracture management stages include (4 Rs): 1. Resuscitate 2. Reduce (if displaced) - may be by open reduction, closed manipulation, or traction 3. Retain (to maintain position while healing occurs) - by internal fixation, external fixation, or conservative methods 4. Rehabilitate R esuscitate Advanced trauma life suppor Navicular fractures can occur in the middle of the foot. They also occur in the wrist, as one of the eight carpal bones at the base of the hand is also known as the scaphoid or navicular bone While degenerative disease of the navicular bone is common, actual fracture of the navicular bone is rare. Fracture usually results from direct and severe trauma. Exercise at speed over rocky ground can result in this fracture The tarsal navicular bone is the keystone of the medial column of the foot, bearing the majority of the load applied to the tarsal complex during weight-bearing [ 1 ]. Acute fractures of the tarsal navicular are uncommon, and isolated fractures are even more uncommon, as tarsal navicular injury is typically associated with other fractures.

Diagnosis and Management of Fractures of the Coffin Bone

Fractures may also be caused by an accident involving the foot that puts unusual pressure on the hoof and foot structure, including the coffin bone, the tendons, and ligaments. Prevention. Preventing navicular fractures is best accomplished with good horse management that prevents horses from engaging in activities that might lead to fractures. Navicular dislocation is a rare injury, typically managed by surgical fixation. This case study presents the results of conservative management of navicular dislocation, using a custom foot orthosis, combined with a removable walker boot. At 6 week review the numeric pain rating scale (NRS-11) score was reduced from 8/10 to 3/10

The scaphoid is the most commonly injured carpal bone. Scaphoid fractures usually result from wrist hyperextension, typically during a fall on an outstretched hand. They can disrupt the blood supply to the proximal scaphoid. Osteonecrosis is thus a common complication, even when initial care is optimal, and can cause disabling, degenerative. Navicular and Talar Head Fracture. The talus is the base of the ankle and the navicular is the bone that connects the ankle to the foot. I realized early on that there isn't a whole lot of information about the healing of these bones. Talar head fractures are an uncommon injury, while navicular fractures are notoriously slow to heal This may be done through diet and exercise. A navicular fracture is a break in the navicular bone on the top of the midfoot. This problem is more common in people who play high-impact sports, such as running, tennis, basketball, or gymnastics. Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history The accessory navicular (os navicularum or os tibiale externum) is an extra bone or piece of cartilage located on the inner side of the foot just above the arch. It is incorporated within the posterior tibial tendon, which attaches in this area. An accessory navicular is congenital (present at birth). It is not part of normal bone structure and. Navicular Fracture. The navicular plays an important role in maintaining the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. Commonly, fractures of the navicular are not evident on plain radiographs. This often leads to a delay in diagnosis, which may result in prolonged disabling foot pain in individuals, particularly young athletes

Navicular bone horse is attached to the pedal bone by a strong ligament and the pastern bone by a suspensory ligament. There are several soft tissue structures are associated with navicular bone. Fractures can occur as a result of direct trauma to the foot from the hard or stony ground during exercise, from kicking a solid object, or from. In cases of navicular syndrome, however, the stress on the navicular bone is continual, meaning osteoclasts are continually working to remove stressed bone tissue and osteoblasts do not have a chance to catch up, and degradation of the bone occurs. This, say Creech and Stohs, is where bisphosphonates can help

Fractures must be differentiated from multipartite navicular bones; the latter affect both limbs symmetrically and have smooth edges and wide radiolucent areas between the bone fragments. Management of complete navicular bone fractures can either be by rest alone, rest with remedial shoeing techniques, rest with external coaptation, palmar. Navicular syndrome is a chronic forelimb lameness associated with pain arising from the navicular apparatus. The navicular apparatus is comprised of the distal sesamoid bone (navicular bone) and closely related structures. Multiple different clinical conditions cause pain in the navicular apparatus - these tend to look similar to each other. The navicular bone is designed with a few problems that make it particularly susceptible to stress injury.   One of these problems is the location of the bone. Located in the middle of the foot, high compressive forces are focused on this bone, particularly when the foot strikes the ground

Navicular Stress Fracture. The navicular is one of the bones in the midfoot. A stress fracture is an overuse injury that results when too much stress is placed on a bone. Repetitive stress will initially cause swelling in the bone. If the stress continues, it will eventually cause the bone's cortex (outside layer) to weaken and crack Navicular bone Author: Charlotte O'Leary BSc, MBChB • Reviewer: Uruj Zehra MBBS, MPhil, PhD Last reviewed: August 31, 2020 Reading time: 7 minutes The foot is the region distal to the ankle and consists of three main parts: the tarsus, the metatarsus and the phalanges.The top of the foot is referred to as the dorsal surface, whilst the underside of the foot is known as the plantar surface When present, a fracture line extending from the cortical bone into the cancellous bone may be suggestive of a stress fracture (68,73). In many pathologic fractures, the tumor may erode the trabecular bone and infiltrate the fracture space, reducing the conspicuity of a distinct fracture line (68,74) Navicular bone stress A case illustrating management is presented at the end of this article. Bone stress to the cuboid and to each of the three cuneiform bones is uncommon. These structures present with local pain and tenderness, and MRI can be useful in diagnosis. Management requires off-loading with crutches and possibly Cam Walker Navicular stress fracture is an injury marked by an incomplete crack in one of the mid-foot bones. Like all the other stress fractures, this overuse injury is a result of excessive and repetitive compressive forces that act on it during the weight bearing process. These forces initially cause a bone stress reaction and continuous damage.

Clinical Practice Guidelines : Navicular Fractures

In a classic Nutcracker fracture there is also a pulling off type (avulsion) fracture of the navicular bone on the inside (medial) foot. Patients present with pain and swelling of the foot, particularly the outer side. Diagnosis is made based on x-ray findings, sometimes supplemented by a CT scan. Treatment involves pain management and. A navicular bone fracture can occur at any time but is usually a result of some form of blunt trauma. If your horse is displaying any type of lameness at a walk or trot, contact your veterinarian for medical evaluation An avulsion fracture of the tibialis posterior tendon is a rare injury. It usually occurs in young athletes because of an induced trauma. (1) It is the most common fracture of the navicular bone, often associated with ligamentous injuries and results from twisting forces on the mid foot. (2) Symptoms are pain distal and posterior to th An accessory navicular is an extra bone found next (proximal) to the navicular bone. It occurs in up to 1 in 10 of the normal population. It is the most common accessory bone in the foot. It is in continuity with the tibialis posterior tendon which inserts into the navicular tuberosity Accessory Navicular. Acessory Navicular is a common idiopathic condition of the foot that presents with an enlargement of the navicular bone. Diagnosis is made with plain radiographs of the foot showing a plantar medial enlargement of the navicular bone. Treatment is generally conservative with shoe modifications and a short period of cast.

management and outcome of patients with navicular fractures. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in the department of orthopedics of a tertiary care medical college situated in an urban area. 30 patients diagnosed to b Tarsal Navicular Stress Fracture. May be indicated per specialist recommendation to define Fracture lines and associated Soft Tissue Injury. Management. See Tarsal Navicular Stress Fracture. Minor avulsion Fracture (low energy injury) Walking boot (CAM Boot) for 4-6 weeks. Significant injury with suspected Ligamentous Injury See below: Navicular can be foot or wrist, either way, it needs to be seen by an orthopedist for hand or foot or podiatrist for foot. Navicular fractures in the wrist can be problematic and result in a vascular necrosis of the bone. Get seen

Navicular Fracture of the Foot: An Overview of a Serious

Fracture of the Navicular Bone Average Cost. From 256 quotes ranging from $3,000 - $8,00 Sclerosis is typically seen along the proximal articular margin of the navicular bone, whereas stress fractures occur in the central third of the navicular body. These fractures are typically incomplete and involve the dorsal aspect of the navicular body, although complete fractures extending into the plantar surface of the navicular body may. The stress fracture of the tarsal navicular was first described in humans in a 1970 case study by Towne et al.[] Early studies showed that it was a rare injury, accounting for only 0.7-2.4% of all stress fractures.[] However, as awareness of the injury has increased, so have the reported number of cases, with tarsal navicular stress fractures currently representing up to 25% of stress.

Approximately 10% of all fractures occur in the 26 bones of the foot. These bones comprise 2 bones in the hindfoot (calcaneus, talus), [1, 2] 5 bones in the midfoot (navicular, cuboid, 3 cuneiforms), and 19 bones in the forefoot (5 metatarsals, [3, 4, 5] 14 phalanges). In addition, the foot contains sesamoid bones, most commonly the os trigonum, os tibiale externum, os peroneum, and os. Navicular stress fractures occur in the sagittal plane in the central third of the bone or at the junction of the central and lateral thirds of the navicular. 24 This site corresponds to the zone of maximum shear stress on the navicular from the surrounding bones. The lesion begins at the proximal dorsal articular surface and propagates in a. Extra-articular fractures account for 30% of all calcaneal fractures in adults. Initial management includes a compression dressing, rest, ice, and elevation, with orthopaedic follow-up. Navicular injuries. Navicular fractures are rare. They are most often stress fractures, occurring in young athletes The Podiatry Institute - Seminars, Surgery Courses, Board.

Scaphoid is most common Carpal Bone Fracture d. Represents 5% of all wrist injuries. Usually occurs as a Workplace Injury or sports injury. Most commonly affects males 18-40 years old. With aging, distal radius is weaker and more commonly Fracture d. Rarely occurs in young children Valid for Submission. S62.031A is a billable diagnosis code used to specify a medical diagnosis of displaced fracture of proximal third of navicular [scaphoid] bone of right wrist, initial encounter for closed fracture. The code S62.031A is valid during the fiscal year 2021 from October 01, 2020 through September 30, 2021 for the submission of HIPAA-covered transactions Köhler's bone disease of the tarsal navicular. Pediatrics L 3 C 18620 7273526 Williams GA, CORR 1981. Köhler's disease of the tarsal navicular. Management of a type two avulsion fracture of the tibial intercondylar eminence in children: arthroscopic suture fixation versus conservative immobilization Fractures are described by their location and shape, and several classification systems exist, depending on the location of the fracture. A common long bone fracture in children is a Salter-Harris fracture. When fractures are managed, pain relief is often given, and the fractured area is often immobilised. This is to promote bone healing

Navicular stress fracture: a high-impact risk for young

Fracture happens when load exceeds bone tolerance (direct or indirect) Pain in the Navicular Or Inability to bear weight before or after injury (4 steps) Describe the common pharmacologic management and surgical management of a patient status post fracture.. How are you Currently Strengthening Your Bones? See Treatment Results Common types of navicular fractures are: a navicular avulsion fracture, a navicular bone fracture and most commonly the navicular bone stress fracture. This is a picture showing how custom orthotics can support the navicular stress fracture site

Fractures Management of Stress fractures 1. Recognition early vs late Local pain xray, mri, CT 2.Rest—decrease forces Cam walker, AircastOrthotics Pool therapy 3.Bone stimulation electrical, ultrasound, BMP 4.Surgery: medial mall, 5thmet, navicular NBA TNSF ALLSTAR TEAM Bill Walton Doug Collin Mid-tarsal fracture dislocation is an inexact term used to describe a variety of lesions of the tarsal navicular bone [1]. Displaced fracture of the navicular is a rare injury. Additionally isolated disruption of the talo-navicular joint without subtalar dislocation or injury to the calcaneo-cuboid joint is also a rare phenomenon [2]

Navicular fractures: aetiology and management - ScienceDirec

A Type I NSF is a crack in the top of the Navicular bone. If caught early (within 6 wks) these often can heal non-surgically, however, patients need to be in a cast boot for 6 weeks, non-weightbearing, and an additional 4-6 weeks weightbearing in the boot (until pain-free). Type II NSF have the fracture line extending deeper into the Navicular. Fitch KD, Blackwell JB, Gilmour WN Operation for non-union of stress fracture of the tarsal navicular J Bone Joint Surg 71B 105-110, 1989 Google Scholar Goergen TG, Venn-Watson EA, Rossman DJ, et al Tarsal navicular stress fractures in runners AJR 136 201 -203, 198 Stress fractures are breaks in the bone that occur with repetitive motions, strains, or stresses. Navicular stress fractures are fairly uncommon. The person at greatest risk for this type of fracture is a high-level athlete engaged in activities that involve repeated push-off of the foot. Track and field runners head the list for this type of. The accessory navicular is located on the poster- medial aspect of the tuberosity of the navicular and may exist unilateraly or bilaterally.1.:' It is found ei- ther as an independent bone, fused totally to the na- vicular or partially fused as a synchondrosis (Figure 3) .2.2i.:'f' The independent bone is incorporated i

PPT - Management of Extremity Fractures PowerPoint

Navicular fracture causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

• Fenton P, et al. The patterns of injury and management of cuboid fractures: a retrospective case series. Bone Joint J. 2016;98-b(7):1003-8. This is the biggest series to date of 192 fractures reporting on the indications of cuboid fracture management. CAS Article Google Scholar 15. Myerson MS Introduction. Stress fractures of the lower extremity are common injuries among individuals who participate in endurance, high load-bearing activities such as running, military and aerobic exercise and therefore require practitioner expertise in diagnosis and management.1-20 Stress fractures in the lower extremity account for 80%-90% of all stress fractures, representing between 0.7% and. Podotrochlosis: 'Navicular' is No Longer the End of the Road for Horses Lame horse? Advanced diagnostic and management strategies for navicular syndrome have improved long-term outcomes Navicular stress fractures can be managed non-operatively initially but there are some that do better with immediate surgical management. All stress reactions and stress fractures of the navicular that are managed non-operatively need at least 6-8 weeks of strict non-weight bearing due to the high risk of delayed healing and non-union

Complete navicular bone fractures than with conventional shoeing methods.1 fractures in horses, in Proceedings. 41st Annu Conv Am Assoc Lag screw fixation may still be the best means of Equine Practnr 1995;243-244. repair, but because of the difficulty of the surgery 2 Cuboid stress fractures are less common than fractures in other tarsal bones such as calcaneus and navicular because the cuboid is not a weight-bearing bone. These fractures may occur in both toddlers[ 9 - 13 ] and adults[ 8 , 14 - 17 ] and may be a result of overuse affecting athletes[ 8 , 15 ] or military recruits[ 18 ] A navicular fracture (also called a scaphoid fracture) is a break in a small bone on the thumb side of your wrist. Of the eight carpal bones in your wrist, your navicular bone is the most likely one to break. It is important to find out if you have a navicular fracture, because navicular fractures need treatment to heal well The accessory navicular is an accessory bone that can develop and cause enlargement of the plantar medial navicular. Generally there are three presentations of the accessory navicular; as a sesmoid bone in the posterior tibialis tendon, articulated with the navicular, or fused to the navicular External fixation, bone grafting (often and early), and limited peritarsal fusion also have evolved into useful aids, under certain circumstances, to facilitate the goals of navicular fracture management

scaphoid and lunate fractures

Navicular fracture - WikE

Navicular fractures pose a high risk for long-term pathology and are associated with a poor prognosis if not properly treated. The navicular is the keystone bone of the medial column of the foot with several articulations and a high degree of inherent stability Coronal T1-weighted image obtained through the navicular bone in a 16 year-old female soccer player with 2 months of anterior and lateral foot pain. In this case, the linear fracture (arrow) extends somewhat obliquely from the dorsal cortex to the lateral cortex of the navicular bone The bone can be a site of midfoot pain when either a fracture or another condition affecting the bone has occurred. It can case a variety of Miguel Cabrera underwent successful right ankle surgery to remove bone spurs and to repair a stress fracture to his navicular bone Wednesday afternoon

prevent arthritis. If there is minimal displacement, then these fractures would be treated non-operatively (see figure 2). Avulsion fractures are tiny fractures at the corners of the cuneiform bone. When avulsion fractures occur in cuneiform bones, these can be worrisome, as they may represent a Lisfranc injury Navicular . Navicular Avascular Necrosis. The Navicular is the last tarsal bone to ossify. [Alhamdani, 2017] Susceptible to mechanical compression by the adjacent ossified talus and cuneiform bones. The perichondral blood supply gets compressed and leads to ischemia of the central bone. The Navicular has vulnerable vascular supply. [DiGiovanni. As management differs for the two lesions, a correct diagnosis is important. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 19-year-old male athlete had pain in the dorsal right midfoot on weight-bearing. A diagnosis of 'stress fracture of the navicular bone' was made on the basis of SPECT-CT. Since conservative therapy did not help, and because the location was atypical. Definition. A navicular fracture is a break in the navicular bone on the top of the midfoot

The Diagnosis, Management and Complications AssociatedCarpal fractures - WikEMDiagnosis and Management of Scaphoid Fractures - AmericanFractures of wrist and hand Flashcards | Quizlet

In an evaluation of 22 patients, 11 of 13 navicular stress fractures healed with nonweightbearing in short leg cast, and 8 returned to sport at an average of 4.3 months. 87 All 9 treated with initial internal fixation, with or without bone grafting, returned to sport at an average of 3.1 months. 87 In 19 navicular stress fractures, 6 treated. Introduction [edit | edit source]. The Navicular is an intermediate tarsal bone on the medial side of the foot.Its name (os naviculare pedis; scaphoid bone) derives from the human bone's resemblance to a small boat. It articulates with four bones: the talus and the three cuneiforms; occasionally with a fifth, the cuboid. While rare in the general population, stress fractures of the tarsal. NAVICULAR FRACTURES. Navicular stress fractures represent 14%-25% of all stress fractures. In contrast to most stress fractures, they are predominantly in male athletes (e.g. hurdling, jumping). 8 The middle third of the navicular bone is the most frequently affected area TALUS FRACTURE AND MANAGEMENT. 1. TALUS FRACTURES Dr. Anshu Sharma Assistant Prof. Dept. of Orthopaediscs, GMC&H. 2. Introduction The heel bone of horse was used as dice and was called Taxillus. This Word evolved into Talus In 1919, Anderson published a series of foot injuries sustained by aviators in World War I which he called Aviator's. Tarsal stress fractures. Stress fractures occur gradually over time from overuse. Common injuries are: Navicular stress fracture. A Navicular stress fracture is one of the most common stress fractures. Symptoms include: A poorly localized ache in the midfoot which gets worse with exercise. Pain may radiate along the inside arch of the foot