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Mycoplasma pneumoniae virulence factors

M. pneumoniae produces a unique virulence factor known as Community Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS) toxin. The CARDS toxin most likely aids in the colonization and pathogenic pathways of M. pneumoniae, leading to inflammation and airway dysfunction Pathogenesis and Virulence . Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an exclusive human pathogen and the infection spread through airborne droplets among close contacts. M. pneumoniae can cause mild pneumonia, often referred to as walking pneumonia since the illness usually does not require treatment in a hospital M. pneumoniae encodes a variety of virulence factors, which include adhesins, glycol- ipids, toxic metabolites, community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin, and capsular polysaccharides. Table1summarizes the key virulence factors associated with M. pneumoniae. Pathogens2021, 10, 119 3 of 18 Table 1

Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Disease-Pathogenesis for Labs CD

Superantigen (pneumoniae) Inflammatory cells migrate to infection and release TNF-a then IL-1 and IL-6; Disease: Mycoplasma is a type of bacteria Mycoplasma can cause sore throat, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Mycoplasma is usually spread from person-to-person through the air and by direct contact Finally, definitive studies in the early 1960s established Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the singular cause of cold agglutinin-associated primary atypical pneumonia . Mycoplasma pneumoniae virulence factors and the immune response. Rev Med Microbiol Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is a respiratory bacterium associated with economically impactful pneumonia in domestic sheep and goats since 1972, when it was first described.. Although M. ovipneumoniae was previously reported to affect species of Caprinae (sheep, goats, and muskoxen), recent studies have identified the bacterium in animals outside Caprinae, highlighting the knowledge gaps in the. In general, infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae are mild. Once someone becomes infected with the bacteria, symptoms usually appear after 1 to 4 weeks. Symptoms depend on the type of infection. The most common type of infection is tracheobronchitis (chest cold), but pneumonia (lung infection) can occur. Common symptoms of a chest cold.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Properties, Disease, Diagnosis

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) during childhood. In the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) 13 era, the epidemiology of pediatric pneumonia has changed. In some countries where PCV13 is already included in national immunization program, M. pneumoniae has become the leading pathogen in pediatric CAP (1,2) Family 2 lipoproteins, paralogs of the immunodominant Mycoplasma gallisepticum nucleotide-binding virulence factor MslA 18,19, were the most abundant LAMP lipoproteins, making up 43.22% of the. This enzyme is a key player in the virulence of Mycoplasma spp. as the produced hydrogen peroxide is one of the major virulence factors of these bacteria. In this review, the different components involved in the utilization of lipids and glycerol in Mycoplasma pneumoniae and related bacteria are discussed M. pneumoniae encodes a variety of virulence factors, which include adhesins, glycolipids, toxic metabolites, community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin, and capsular polysaccharides. Table 1 summarizes the key virulence factors associated with M. pneumoniae. Table 1. Key virulence factors of M. pneumoniae

teria of the genus Mycoplasma are considered to be minimal pathogens. These bacteria have only very small genomes (less than 1400 kb) and, accordingly, only a limited reservoir of virulence factors (Razin et al., 1998; Waites and Talkington, 2004). We are interested in Mycoplasma pneumoniae,the causative agent of atypical pneumonia as well as. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was first identified and characterized in the 1960s and shown to be a common cause of upper and lower respiratory disease in children and adults. Serious infections requiring hospitalization, while rare, occur in persons of all age groups, and may affect multiple organ systems Remarkably, only few candidate virulence factors of Mycoplasma are known or well described. For M. pneumoniae, only the community acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin is described as a typical toxin representative (Kannan and Baseman, 2006; Kannan et al., 2010; Johnson et al., 2011; Becker et al., 2015) What are the virulence factors of mycoplasma pneumoniae. adhesions- p1 adhesions, lytic enzymes and H2O2, superantigen activity- massive release of TNF-a, IL-1, and IL-6. Legionella pneumophila transmission & pathogenesis & morphology & stain. inhalation of infectious aeroso

Unlike many bacterial pathogens, Mycoplasma pneumoniae is not known to produce classical toxins, and precisely how M. pneumoniae injures the respiratory epithelium has remained a mystery for >50 years. Here, we report the identification of a virulence factor (MPN372) possibly responsible for airway cellular damage and other sequelae associated with M. pneumoniae infections in humans Virulence factor. Mycoplasma pneumoniae it has a membrane-associated 169 kDa protein called P1, which has an adhesin function. These adhesins bind to complex oligosaccharides that contain sialic acid and are found in the apical part of the cells of the bronchial epithelium virulence factors by which mycoplasmas interact with and subsequently damage the host cells. In this review, we aim to discuss the primary virulence factors of mycoplasmas to better understand the strategies used to penetrate the circulation system and increase infec-tivity in both humans and animals Unlike many bacterial pathogens, Mycoplasma pneumoniae is not known to produce classical toxins, and precisely how M. pneu-moniae injures the respiratory epithelium has remained a mystery for >50 years. Here, we report the identification of a virulence factor (MPN372) possibly responsible for airway cellular damag

Much of the work that is the basis of our current understanding of each of these steps of M. pneumoniae respiratory disease pathogenesis is from studies using animal models, which have proven valuable in understanding mycoplasma-host interactions, and provide a foundation for studies in humans Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the smallest, free-living organisms (1 to 2 μm long and 0.1 to 0.2 μm wide) cells cannot be seen with light microscopy. M. pneumoniae cells are pleomorphic (taking on many shapes), but often described as spindle-shaped. one end of the cell contains the attachment organelle where adhesins specific for. It is unclear how M. iowae causes disease, but in addition to its attachment organelle-mediated adherence and motility functions , its genome encodes potential virulence factors, including two closely linked genes encoding proteins similar to Mycoplasma pneumoniae CARDS toxin , an ADP-ribosylating toxin that is associated with many of the. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory tract infections in children as well as adults that can range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Over the past several years there has been much new information published concerning infections caused by this organism. New molecular-based tests for M. pneumoniae detection are now commercially available in the United States, and.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia among hospitalized children in the United States. The main virulence factor of M. pneumoniae is a 591 amino. P60 is a virulence factor of M. hyopneumoniae (Seymour et al. 2012). These lipoproteins could be considered as virulence factors. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are important virulence factors for many Mycoplasma species, such as M. mycoides subsp. SC (Pilo et al. 2007) Additionally, Mycoplasma produces community acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin, a unique virulence factor which activates the host's inflammatory pathways and airway dysfunction. Pathophysiology Transmission. Mycoplasma is thought to be exclusively a human pathogen

[Pathogenic factors of mycoplasma

Title:What we have Learned from Animal Models of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Disease: Virulence Mechanisms and Host Responses VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 4 Author(s):Jerry W. Simecka Affiliation:Department of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA. Keywords:Mycoplasma, lung, pneumonia, mouse model, animal model, immunology Introduction. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the smallest bacteria that can be grown in axenic culture and it is a frequent agent of community acquired pneumonia in humans, as well as a causative agent of severe extra-pulmonary complications [1-3].This bacterium is increasingly appreciated for its role in the etiology of reactive airway diseases, such as asthma and adult respiratory. P60 is regarded as a virulence factor of M. hyopneumoniae (Seymour et al. 2012). These lipoproteins may be virulence factors of M. bovirhinis. Glycerol metabolism and its metabolic product H 2 O 2 contributes to the virulence of Mycoplasma (Blötz and Stülke 2017; Hames et al. 2009)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is an important pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. The community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin is the only known virulence factor of M. pneumoniae.It is worth exploring whether this toxin can be used as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of M. pneumoniae.In this study, the full-length, N-terminal, and C-terminal regions. Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Person-to-person transmission is via inhalation of contaminated respiratory droplets. children, adolescents, and young adults (Ages 5-20) appear to be the most prone to infection although any age group can be affected. Clinical consequences following infection usually require a prolonged incubation time of 2-3 weeks

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections: Pathogenesis and Vaccine

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Mechanisms of Pathogenicit

Hydrogen peroxide production and myo-inositol metabolism as important traits for virulence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Mariana Galv o Ferrarini,1,2,3† Scheila Gabriele Mucha,3† Delphine Parrot,1,2 Guillaume Meiffrein,4 Jose Fernando Ruggiero Bachega,3,5 Gilles Comte,4 Arnaldo Zaha3* and Marie-France Sagot1,2* 1ERABLE Team, Institut Nationale de Recherche e Mycoplasma pneumonia. 1. Description of the Microorganism (structure, thoroughly describing the infectious disease, 2. Virulence Factors. 3. Immunity - which components of the immune system would protect the patient. 4. Infectious disease information Comparative -omics in <i>Mycoplasma pneumoniae</i> Clinical Isolates Reveals Key Virulence Factors By Maria Lluch-Senar (105774), Luca Cozzuto (792050), Jaime Cano (792051), Javier Delgado (105777), Verónica Llórens-Rico (5665006), Sabine Pereyre (258759), Cécile Bebear (5665009) and Luis Serrano (5871 Abstract. Hemadsorbing revertants were isolated from spontaneous hemadsorption-negative, avirulent mutants of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The revertants simultaneously reacquired specific proteins absent in their homologous mutants, along with neuraminidase-sensitive adherence to the respiratory epithelium and virulence - Virulence is defined as the relative ability of a pathogen to infect its host. Thus, virulence is quantitative in nature and the quantitative factors of virulence may control the amount of severity of a disease. Pathogenicity, on the other hand, is a qualitative term and is absolute for a specific pathogen and its host

Pathogenesis and virulence factors. Now, Klebsiella pneumoniae has a number of virulence factors that are like assault weaponry that help it attack and destroy the host cells and evade the immune system. First, Klebsiella pneumoniae is encapsulated, which means it's covered by a polysaccharide layer called a capsule P blood grp glycolipid Other Enterobacteriaceae Type 1 fimbriae D-Mannose Neisseria gonorrhoeae Fimbriae GD1 ganglioside Treponema pallidum P1, P2, P3 Fibronectin Chlamydia spp. Cell surface lectin N-acetylglucosamine Mycoplasma pneumoniae Protein P1 Sialic acid Vibrio cholerae Type 4 pili Fucose and mannose MICROBIAL . PATHOGEN ADHESI PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT. NAME: Mycoplasma pneumoniae. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Eaton agent, walking pneumonia, primary atypical pneumonia, pleural atypical pneumonia Footnote 1 Footnote 2.. CHARACTERISTICS: M. pneumoniae is a respiratory tract Gram-negative spindle shaped pleomorphic bacterium, which belongs to the Mycoplasmataceae. Comparative ``-omics'' in Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Reveals Key Virulence Factors

Mycoplasma [background, morphology, colony, virulence

Mycoplasmas: Sophisticated, Reemerging, and Burdened by

  1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common human bacterial pathogen that causes acute and chronic infections of the respiratory tract and extrapulmonary pathology (1, 2).With the exception of mycoplasma adherence to the host epithelium, molecular mechanisms of virulence associated with the pathogenesis of M. pneumoniae infection are not well understood (1, 3)
  2. Causative Agents of Pneumonia Match the pneumonia-causing pathogen to its virulence factor to test your understanding of microorganisms that cause lower respiratory tract diseases. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Hantavirus Histoplasma capsulatum Streptococcus pneumoniae Match each of the options above to the items below, Capsule Adhesins Induces.
  3. ants and provide novel insights on mycoplasma-host.
  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates from cases of community-acquired pneumonia Meghan May1† and Daniel R Brown2*† Abstract Background: Sialidase is a well-known virulence factor of other respiratory pathogens, but was only recently documented to occur in some species of Mycoplasma. The sialidase activity expressed can vary quantitativel
  5. by M. pneumoniae in glycerol, which lead to oxidative stress and subsequent cell death. Note that glycerol metabolism, attributed as a virulence factor in Mycoplasma species, was initially discovered in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, and subsequently found to be present in M. pneu-moniae (2,3). The Figure was taken from Pilo et al, 2005 (2)
  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen that causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections in people of all ages, responsible for up to 40 % of community-acquired pneumonias. It also causes a wide array of extrapulmonary infections and autoimmune phenomena. Phylogenetic studies of the organism have been generally restricted to specific genes or regions of the genome, because whole.

Adherence factors . The mycoplasmas are extracellular pathogens that adhere to epithelial cell surfaces. Thus, adherence proteins are one of the major virulence factors. The adherence protein in M. pneumoniae has been identified as a 168kD protein called P1. The P1 Adhesin localizes at tips of the bacterial cells and binds to sialic acid. Previous work has shown that the virulent strain R of M. gallisepticum (Rlow) lost its pathogenicity after 164 successive passages in vitro. Molecular characterization revealed that at least three proteins were absent in the avirulent strain Rhigh compared to Rlow. These proteins are the major cytadhesin GapA, cytadherence related molecule CrmA and a component of an ABC transporter system, HatA Aims: Adherence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to the ciliated epithelial cells of the porcine respiratory tract is considered an important first step in the pathogenesis of enzootic pneumonia. It was the aim of this study to verify the usefulness of in vitro adhesion as a virulence marker.. Methods and Results: Adherence capacity to immobilized cilia from porcine tracheal epithelial cells of.

Other Bacterial Forms at Texas A&M University - StudyBlue

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and the disease usually has a prolonged, gradual onset. [] M pneumoniae was first isolated in cattle with pleuropneumonia in 1898.. In 1938, Reimann described the first cases of mycoplasmal pneumonia in man and coined the term primary atypical pneumonia after observing 7 patients in Philadelphia with marked. pneumoniae strains wereclassified in26MLVA types[33].Uptodate,60different MLVA typeshavebeenreported [34-36][37].However, duetothelackofstabilityofmpn1,themost discriminant marker[34],anamended MLVAnomenclature system basedonthefourremain 6. List the various host factors, or conditions which predispose a patient to developing pneumonia. What host factors may have predisposed this patient to pneumonia? 7. Explain the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia? What virulence factors are important? What pathologic changes are produced in the lungs because of pneumonia? 8. How is the. target.We observed trigger factor protein as a common targetable virulence factor present in four pathogenic bacteria viz. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. After screening of 116 available antibacterial compounds, we found 04 most specific and poten Mycoplasma pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae). This type of pneumonia is also called atypical pneumonia because the symptoms are different from those of pneumonia due to other common bacteria.People who live or work in crowded areas such as schools and homeless shelters have a high chance of getting this condition

Mycoplasma - microbewiki

USDA APHIS Mycoplasma ovipneumonia

Virulence factors of Legionella pneumophila. Heat shock protein 60: enhances invasion and cytokine expression in macrophages. Outer membrane protein: binding with and delivery of packaged materials into the eukaryotic cells. inhibit the fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes.; Macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) protein promotes adherence and phagocytosis The recent identification of hydrogen peroxide production as a virulence factor of Mycoplasma species which are respiratory pathogens of ruminants and humans, strongly supports study of the synthesis of this toxic metabolite in M. hyopneumoniae Mycoplasma pneumonia is a contagious respiratory infection. The disease spreads easily through contact with respiratory fluids, and it causes regular epidemics Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria without cell walls; Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the species with highest clinical relevance because of the respiratory tract infections it can cause. Mycoplasma pneumoniae produces a virulence factor known as the CARDS toxin (community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome toxin Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma are extremely small organisms which are bound only by an inner lipid membrane (See: Bacterial Cell Wall ). Because they lack a rigid peptidoglycan layer, Mycoplasma do not have a particular shape and are thus considered Pleomorphic. Because they do not contain a peptidoglycan layer, beta-lactam antibiotics are useless.

Transmission electron micrographs of Mycoplasma pneumoniaeShedding of OMVs

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Signs and Symptoms CD

Mycoplasma: Mycoplasma pneumoniae. 8. Know the general information including description, virulence factor(s), and major disease(s) caused for the following: Spirochetes: Treponema pertenue, Borrelia recurrentis, Leptospirosis, Spirullu The human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a remarkable minimal organism which primarily colonizes the human lung tissue. To reach distant infection sites, it probably also enters the blood stream. The Mycoplasma genome has constantly undergone reductive changes due to strong adaptation to the convenient conditions and high nutrient availability in its habitat Figure 3. Role of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in chronic asthma Initial infection in a subject with established allergic asthma and Th2-biased airway inflammation followed by chronic phase with multiple virulence factors (CARDS TX, H2O2, lipopeptides and direct adherence to surface immunoreceptors) contributing to maintenance of chronic airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity Showing computational workflow of adopted pipeline used for annotating function of HPs.Display Omitted Genome sequence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was extensively analyzed.Functions of 83HPs were succ..

RESPIRATORY Study Guide (2012-13 Rodenbaugh) - Instructor

Pathogenicity & virulence of Mycoplasma hyopneumonia

Note that glycerol metabolism, attributed as a virulence factor in Mycoplasma species, was initially discovered in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, and subsequently found to be present in M. pneumoniae (2,3). The Figure was taken from Pilo et al, 2005 (2). ROS, reactive oxygen species A major virulence determinant of my-coplasmas is the presence of one or more cy-tadhesins, membrane proteins that mediate in-timate adherence of the organisms to host cells (2,12,13,14,22). Possibly the best-documented virulence factor of any mycoplasma is the P1 major attachment protein of Mycoplasma pneu-moniae (2). The importance of P1 in. Mycoplasma also have unique use of the amino acid codon UGA, which they use as an additional codon for tryptophan, while other organisms use it as a stop codon.In sequencing these genomes researchers hope to increase understanding of the pathophysiology of the pathogen, by identifying virulence factors Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infections cause tracheobronchitis and walking pneumonia, and are linked to asthma and other reactive airway diseases. As part of the infectious process, the bacterium expresses a 591-aa virulence factor with both mono-ADP ribosyltransferase (mART) and vacuolating activities known as Community-Acquired.

(PDF) Glycerol metabolism and its implication in virulenceMycoplasma host cell interaction

Virulence, persistence and dissemination of Mycoplasma

Structure, Virulence Factors and Pathogenesis • Capsular polysaccharide is most important virulence factor; approximately 85 capsular types Mycoplasma pneumonia. 9 Mycoplasma • Does not have a cell wall • Cell membrane contains sterols not present in other bacteri Sialidase is a well-known virulence factor of other respiratory pathogens, but was only recently documented to occur in some species of Mycoplasma. The sialidase activity expressed can vary quantitatively among strains within a species of mycoplasma, from undetectable to amounts that correlate positively with strain virulence. Very few isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae had ever been examined. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been identified with an increasing array of illnesses, such as acute hepatitis, [11, 12] immune thrombocytopenic purpura, severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Stevens.

GEO Accession viewe

Statistics: Victors includes 5304 virulence factors for now. Provenance: The data in Victors originates from our literature curation and boinformatics analyses. Citation: Sayers S, Li L, Ong E, Deng S, Fu G, Lin Y, Yang B, Zhang S, Fa Z, Zhao B, Xiang Z, Li Y, Zhao Z, Olszewski MA, Chen L, He Y. Victors: a web-based knowledge base of virulence factors in human and animal pathogens Mycoplasma pneumoniae cells. Arrows indicate attachment organelles on two of the cells. A pair of Mycoplasma penetrans Development of new genetic tools for studying mycoplasma attachment organelles and other virulence-associated factors. Structural analysis of mycoplasma attachment organelle proteins. Selected Publications Peer-reviewed. Background. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, and, usually, the disease has a prolonged, gradual onset.M pneumoniae was first isolated in cattle with pleuropneumonia in 1898.. In 1938, Reimann described the first cases of mycoplasmal pneumonia in man. Reimann coined the term primary atypical pneumonia after observing 7 patients in Philadelphia with. DIAMOND was used in mapping CARD and Virulence Factor Database (VFDB) to identify resistance genes and virulence factors. Draft genome of M. pneumoniae. Host-removed reads from all samples were co-assembled using megahit. Contigs of all samples were clustered to recover metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) using MetaBAT2 under default parameters In contrast to other pathogenic bacteria this epidemic are continuously threatened by reemerging in- where virulence is mostly determined by toxins, invasins, and fections. cytolysins, pathogenic Mycoplasma species appear to have no Recently, we suggested that M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC such typical primary virulence factors, as revealed by.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus): Disease

Mycoplasma amphoriforme is considered an emerging pathogen which has been linked to chronic infections among immunocompromised patients, particularly those with a PAD. To date, little is known about the pathogenicity, virulence factors and types of infection that M. amphoriforme can cause Introduction. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M.pneumoniae), a small prokaryote devoid of a cell wall, is one of the most common etiological agents of human respiratory tract infections.About 10-40% of all cases of community acquired pneumonia can be attributed to M.pneumoniae, which occurs in epidemic peaks at intervals of 3-7 years [1-3].Occasionally, severe cases with extrapulmonary. Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Mycoplasma [background, morphology, colony, virulence factors, disease] October 5, 2018 anupbiochemist@gmail.com 0. Mycoplasma Background: Mycoplasma are smallest free-living microorganisms, lack cell wall. Size varies from spherical shape(125-250nm to longer branching filaments 500-1000 nm in size.. The following are examples of organism-specific virulence factors: Streptococcus pneumoniae - Pneumolysin, a multifunctional virulence factor, is cytotoxic to respiratory epithelium and endothe. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, an important pathogenic bacteria associated with respiratory tract infection in human, is responsible for about 10 to 40% of the community acquired pneumonia (CAP) [1, 2]. M. pneumoniae infection is usually considered as a self-limited disease, while a part of patients may develop severe pneumonia especially the children [3, 4] Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes.It is a human pathogen that causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia related to cold agglutinin disease. M. pneumoniae is characterized by the absence of a peptidoglycan cell wall and resulting resistance to many antibacterial agents.The persistence of M. pneumoniae infections even.